DRSABCD is a common acronym that you’ll see in various places nowadays – especially in regards to emergencies, first aid, and CPR. At first glance, it doesn’t look like the most straightforward acronym to remember – or pronounce, for that matter. And yet, “DRSABCD” and “DRSABCD protocol” will often be dropped into workplace documentation or first aid information, often without further explanation.
If you’re new to that acronym, you’ll be pleased to know that it’s generally pronounced “Doctors ABCD” (as in “Doctors A, B, C & D”) rather than “Dris-Abb-Kuh-Duh” or something equally strange. But what does it mean? What on earth does DRSABCD stand for, and why is it important?
What does DRSABCD stand for?
DRSABCD is a series of steps to help walk someone through the first aid process. It describes the sequence of stages that a first aid provider should work through when encountering a sick or injured person. It guides them through gauging what danger they’re in, assessing whether resuscitation is needed and deciding how and when to start CPR.
DRSABCD stands for Danger, Response, Send, Airway, Breathing, CPR, Defibrillation. Each of these is a step – often quite a detailed step – that should be applied when providing first aid.
If you’re none the wiser for hearing that, don’t worry – the acronym is a reminder for a set of skills learned as part of first aid training. You’re not expected to look at those words and automatically know what to do. When you take part in a first aid course, the DRSABCD protocol is covered in detail, including when and how to apply each step. The acronym is just a reminder of that process and the skills that go with it.
When is DRSABCD used?
DRSABCD is intended to be used at the very beginning of the first aid process. It’s for assessing the situation and the state of the injured or sick person to decide how to proceed with first aid. The initial step – “Danger” – involves checking the area for dangerous conditions, both to determine what might have harmed the person and to avoid falling victim to the same hazard. You can’t offer first aid to someone if you become a casualty yourself!
DRSABCD covers the initial steps of rendering first aid right up to rendering CPR and potentially using an automated defibrillator (AED). Because it’s primarily focused on resuscitation, it doesn’t really address other aspects of first aid – such as tending wounds for a conscious person or handing over to emergency services. Rather, it’s a tool specifically to help someone know what to do if someone is unconscious and in need of CPR or Defibrillation.
How to do DRSABCD
Each of the letters of DRSABCD is a stage in the process – either an assessment the first aid provider needs to make or a task they need to perform. The different steps are as follows.
- Danger – The first step in the process is to check for danger. In many emergencies, there may be something in the area that has caused the sick or injured person to become a casualty, and the danger is still present. This could include live electricity, a fire, chemicals, falling heavy objects, or a dangerous animal such as a snake or dog. The first step is to remove that danger (or move the person away from it).
- Response – The second step is to check the person’s responsiveness. Do they respond to your voice, and are they able to answer? There’s a big difference between first aid for a responsive, aware person and an unconscious one. This step often has its own mini-steps, including its own acronyms to remember – such as “COWS” (for “Can you hear me?”, “Open your eyes”, “What is your name?” and “Squeeze my hand”).
- Send for help – Once you’ve made sure the area is safe, and you know if the person is conscious or responsive, it’s time to call for help. This might mean getting someone with you to call 000, or possibly making the call yourself if you’re alone. You can leave the phone on speaker mode as you continue with first aid – the 000 operators can advise you while help is on the way. If you don’t have a phone, you might need to be actually shouting for assistance. In the worst-case scenario where no help is in earshot, you may even need to roll the person onto their side (into the recovery position) and run to get help.
- Airway – Open the person’s mouth and check for foreign material, such as bits of food or fluids (such as vomit). If there’s anything there, roll the person onto their side to allow fluid to drain out. If you can be confident of not making the problem worse, scoop any blockages out with a finger sweep (use gloves if possible). If their airway is clear, make sure they’re lying on their back, and then tilt their head gently back to open up their airway.
- Breathing – Check if the person is breathing. Look for the rise and fall of the chest (you can also feel for this). Also, listen near their mouth for the sound of breath for at least 10 seconds. If they’re breathing, put them in the recovery position (on their side). If not, make sure 000 has been called and start CPR.
- CPR – This is the stuff you’ve seen in all the movies – chest compressions and breaths blown into the person’s mouth. The current standard is 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths. Continue working until help arrives, the person starts breathing again, or you’re physically unable to keep going.
- Defibrillate – If an automated defibrillator (or AED) is available nearby, it should be used as soon as possible once CPR has commenced. Modern defibrillators come with simple instructions (often spoken aloud by the unit) and are designed to be useable for untrained operators. They scan the patient and make all the hard decisions for you about whether to initiate a shock or not.
Although we can cover the basics of DRSABCD in this article, this is no substitute for learning how to apply DRSABCD and perform CPR in proper first aid training. First aid courses cover all these steps in detail, including common complications and how to respond to them. In particular, familiarity with an AED unit can save critical seconds in an emergency as a first aid provider comes to grips with how they operate.
The DRSABCD process is something that can save lives, and it’s worth investing a little time in learning how to do it properly.
Why is DRSABCD important?
When lives are in danger in a medical emergency, it’s not always easy to think clearly. It’s also easy to miss details and crucial steps in a process, or even suffer a mental blank, and simply not know what to do or how to start. A simple acronym like “Drs ABCD” can help you walk through the process and do each step at the right time. You don’t want to be halfway through attempting CPR and realise you’ve forgotten to call an ambulance, or check the area for live electrical wires.
Why do we use “DRSABCD”?
There’s a simple answer to that question and a more complicated answer. In simple terms, Drs ABCD is a simple way to remember a lot of information. That simple set of 7 letters helps people quickly recall quite a detailed process.
Alternatively, you might be wondering why we use “Drs ABCD” and not something a little more catchy (such as “DREAMS” – for “Danger, Response, Emergency services, Airways, Manual CPR, Start defibrillation”, for example). If so, you might need the slightly more detailed answer, which is that the acronym has evolved over the years.
Back when CPR was first becoming commonplace, the acronym “ABC” (Airway, Breathing, CPR) was introduced basically as a way to remind people to only start CPR when a casualty’s airways were clear, but they definitely weren’t breathing. Initially, it was used most often in hospitals. However, over time it became clear that other steps were needed in the process.
The “Dr” (Danger, Response) was one of the first modifications to the ABC protocol, encouraging people to ensure their own safety before applying first aid and obtain consent where possible. This was more of a priority as members of the general public began using CPR at the site of an accident or injury. This was later revised to “Drs” to ensure people remembered to call 000 or otherwise send for help ASAP.
Also, as technology has evolved, automated defibrillators (AEDs) have become advanced enough for non-medical personnel to use and common enough that they’re frequently on-hand. As a result, “Drs ABC” has now become “Drs ABCD” to remind first aid providers that AEDs are both available and effective for a resuscitation situation.
As the acronym evolved, medical experts decided to leave the acronym as close to the original as possible to avoid confusing people in an emergency.
So although it might look hard to remember at first glance, DRSABCD – or “Drs ABCD” – is a valuable tool that has helped save many lives over the years.