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What Is Infant Mental Health?

Infant mental health struggles

Table of Contents

Sharon McCulloch

The primary focus of infant mental health (sometimes called “social and emotional wellbeing”) is on newborns’ reactions to their environments. Infants’ mental health and welfare are greatly dependent on the environment in which they are raised.  Baby mental health is defined as “the young child’s capacity to experience, regulate, and express emotions, form close and trustworthy relationships, experience their surroundings, and understand.” The psychological well-being of infants is unique compared to that of children and adults. This means that it has varying impacts on infants and calls for varying forms of care.

Infants with mental health problems may have various:

  • physical,
  • psychological, and
  • behavioural manifestations.

Infants’ mental health might benefit from early diagnosis and treatment, which can help them fully recover. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2020, over 300,000 infants are born in Australia annually. The first year of life (infancy) is a special time of rapid development, when the brain grows in ways that will influence long-term health and happiness.

Early life experiences are crucial because of their potential impact on future growth and development. Traumatic events and other risk factors have been linked to mental health disorders . Therefore, reducing risk factors and promoting optimal mental health for infants may reduce the likelihood of future difficulties.

What Is Infant Mental Health?

Infant mental health refers to a child’s ability to feel and show emotions, develop connections, play and learn independently, and adapt to new situations. Changes in an infant’s mental health can be caused by both internal and external factors. Infants might be thought of as existing at one of four points along a “continuum” of mental health (healthy, coping, struggling, and sick).

Alterations in normal behaviour (such as eating, crying, or sleeping) or in normal physiological indications (such as heart or breathing rate) may indicate illness.

Babies with mental health issues are at a higher risk for both physical and mental health issues as they grow up. There may be substantial human and service costs incurred by Australia because of poor mental health in infancy.

The state of an infant’s mental health is dynamic and prone to change. Infants and children may experience mental health issues at various points along a spectrum, as proposed by the Australian National Children’s Mental Health and Wellbeing Strategy (National Mental Health Commision, 2021).

The Viewpoint On The Spectrum General Description Infant Specific Description
Healthy  Children have a high level of emotional and psychological health and well-being. Infants enjoy a condition of emotional and psychological well-being.
Coping Although children face mental health difficulties, they have the tools necessary to overcome them. Even though infants are still developing, they get the loving support and care they need to overcome any difficulties they encounter.
Unwell Mental health problems pose serious obstacles to kids’ happiness and development. They require more help to handle and cover Infants seldom receive a mental health diagnosis. Infants who are showing significant indications of distress, however, will need more help for themselves and their families.
Struggling Children face mental health difficulties but aren’t coping well and could benefit from more help. Infants’ mental health is a concern and they and their families will require more help.

Variations in infants’ experiences as they progress up and down the spectrum are due to differences in their individual characteristics, their environments, and their connections with their carers . Their progression along the spectrum is influenced by numerous risk and protective factors.

What Is Infant Mental Health?

Infant Mental Health Struggles?

Infant mental health struggles are challenges faced by young children in their emotional and cognitive development. They are influenced by internal factors like genetics and temperament, as well as external factors such as family dynamics and community resources. Infant mental health professionals play a vital role in supporting children’s mental health. Early intervention and nurturing caregiver relationships are essential for promoting children’s well-being.

What Are The Most Essential Factors Influencing Infant Mental Health?

Risk factors, like exposure to familial violence, are examples of circumstances that can have a detrimental impact on an infant’s mental health and development, while protective ones, such as having a loving and kind carer, can have a good effect. It’s crucial that you understand:

  • Infants who are more or less likely to develop mental health problems based on the presence or absence of certain risk and protective variables.
  • Many elements, both harmful and helpful to one’s mental health, coexist and can even interact. The presence of numerous contributing elements might have a multiplicative effect due to the cumulative nature of the effects.
  • Infants who are more likely to have difficulties can be identified with the help of risk factors (for example, unfavourable experiences like neglect or abuse).
  • The risks and benefits are affected by their composition, as well as their timing, magnitude, and accumulation.
  • Protective factors and reducing risk factors are both important for newborn mental health. Multiple aspects may be targeted at once by a single support strategy.

There are many different types of factors that can affect a baby’s mental health:

  • Personal aspects (baby behaviour, genetics, etc.)
  • Aspects of the caretaker’s family and social network
  • Variables in the infant’s societal, social, and physical surroundings (such as family stability, financial stability, and cultural norms and expectations around infant mental health)

Do All Infants Experience Mental Health?

All babies experience mental health on a continuum from healthy to unwell. While it may seem unusual to think about infants and mental health together, a baby’s mental health is closely intertwined with their early physical development and social and emotional wellbeing.

Even though they may not express themselves through words, infants communicate their needs and emotions through various cues. As caregivers, responding sensitively and providing a nurturing environment for optimal development is important.

Simple actions like using a calm and soothing voice when upset, gently rocking them for comfort, and building secure relationships with caregivers contribute to their mental well-being.

Why Is Infant Mental Health So Important? 

Infant mental health sets the stage for future development. The early years are crucial for brain development, forming the basis for emotional regulation, social skills, and cognitive abilities. Positive experiences during infancy contribute to forming strong neural connections, allowing children to thrive later in life.

On the other hand, negative experiences or disruptions during this period can have long-lasting effects on mental health and well-being. Investing in infant mental health lays the groundwork for a healthier future for children and society.

Why Is Infant Mental Health So Important?

How To Promote Infant Mental Health? 

Promoting infant mental health involves creating an environment that supports the well-being of both infants and their caregivers. Some key strategies to promote infant mental health include:

  1. Building nurturing and strong relationships: A secure bond with caregivers forms the foundation for an infant’s mental well-being. Caregivers should provide consistent, responsive, loving interactions to foster trust and emotional security.
  2. Supportive home and family life: Creating a safe, stable, and loving home environment helps promote positive mental health outcomes for infants. This includes meeting their basic needs, establishing routines, and providing a supportive network for parents and caregivers.
  3. Accessing early childhood services: Early childhood services, such as paediatricians, childcare centres, and parenting programs, play a vital role in supporting infant mental health. These services provide parents with guidance, education, and resources better to understand their child’s development and address concerns.
  4. Fostering social and emotional health: Encouraging social interactions, providing age-appropriate stimulation, and facilitating play experiences that promote exploration and problem-solving skills contribute to infants’ social and emotional development.

What Is Perinatal Infant Mental Health?

Perinatal infant mental health refers to the mental health and well-being of both the parent or caregiver and the infant during pregnancy and the first year after birth.

It addresses the mental and emotional challenges of this extraordinary and formative time. Perinatal mental health encompasses the emotional well-being of the expectant parent, the bonding and attachment between the parent and the unborn baby, and the early relationship between the parent and the newborn.

During the perinatal period, parents experience various emotions and adjustments as they navigate the physical, hormonal, and lifestyle changes associated with pregnancy and early parenthood. This period can bring joy, excitement, stress, anxiety, and depression. The parent’s mental health plays a crucial role in the well-being of both the parent and the infant.

Perinatal infant mental health recognises the interconnectedness of the parent-infant relationship. It emphasises the importance of supporting the parent’s mental health to foster a nurturing and supportive environment for the infant. Research has shown that a parent’s emotional state, attachment patterns, and ability to respond sensitively to their baby’s cues significantly influence the infant’s social, emotional, and cognitive development.

Professionals in perinatal infant mental health work with expectant and new parents to provide support, assessment, and intervention when needed. They may offer counselling, therapy, or educational programs to address perinatal mental health challenges such as postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, or difficulties in the parent-infant relationship.

Perinatal infant mental health aims to optimise developmental outcomes and overall family functioning during this critical phase of life by promoting the mental well-being of both the parent and the infant.

Why Is Social And Emotional Development Important For Mental Health?

Social and emotional development plays a vital role in mental health. By nurturing social and emotional skills, individuals can better navigate life’s challenges, maintain positive mental well-being, and form meaningful connections.

Here are the key points explaining why social and emotional development is important for mental health:

  1. Building Relationships: Social and emotional development allows individuals to form and maintain healthy relationships with others. Positive relationships provide a sense of belonging, support, and connection, which is crucial for overall mental well-being.
  2. Self-Awareness and Emotional Regulation: Developing social and emotional skills helps individuals become more self-aware and understand their emotions. This awareness enables them to regulate their emotions effectively, leading to better mental health outcomes.
  3. Coping with Stress: Social and emotional development equips individuals with coping strategies to deal with stress and adversity. It helps them develop resilience, problem-solving skills, and adaptive ways of managing challenging situations, reducing the negative impact on mental health.
  4. Communication and Expression: Individuals with well-developed social and emotional skills can articulate their wants, needs, and emotions clearly and convincingly. Good communication skills foster healthy interactions, improve interpersonal relationships, and reduce misunderstandings, positively impacting mental health.
  5. Empathy and Compassion: Developing empathy and compassion towards others enhances social connections and fosters a sense of empathy towards oneself. Understanding and caring for others’ emotions promotes a supportive and inclusive environment, benefiting mental well-being.
  6. Reduced Social Isolation: Social and emotional development helps individuals establish and maintain social connections, reducing the risk of social isolation. Strong social networks provide a support system and contribute to improved mental health outcomes.
  7. Positive Self-Image and Self-Esteem: Social and emotional development allows individuals to develop a positive self-image and healthy self-esteem. A strong sense of self-worth and self-confidence positively influences mental health, promoting overall well-being.
  8. Enhanced Emotional Intelligence: Social and emotional development improves mental agility, which is the ability to acknowledge, comprehend, and control one’s own emotions as well as the emotions of others. Emotional intelligence improves mental health by promoting self-awareness, empathy, and effective communication.
What Is Emotional Well-being?

What Is Emotional Well-being?

Emotional well-being refers to a state of optimal mental and emotional health. It encompasses feeling a sense of balance, satisfaction, and fulfilment in one’s emotional experiences. Emotional well-being entails being aware of and efficiently managing one’s emotions, keeping healthy relationships, and coping with stress and hardship. It is an important aspect of overall well-being. It contributes to a positive outlook, resilience, and a satisfying quality of life.

Mental Illness In Infants, Children And Adults

Infants, children, and adults of all ages are susceptible to developing mental health problems. While the core symptoms and diagnostic criteria for certain mental disorders may be similar across different age groups, there are some notable differences in how mental illness can manifest and be diagnosed in each population. Here’s a brief explanation of mental illness in infants, children, and adults:


  • Mental illness in infants is often referred to as infant mental health disorders. These disorders may include feeding disorders, sleep disturbances, regulatory disorders, and attachment disorders.
  • Infants with mental health disorders may exhibit emotional regulation, bonding and attachment difficulties. They may have challenges with self-soothing or responding to stimuli.
  • Diagnosis in infants relies heavily on careful observation by parents, caregivers, and healthcare professionals, as infants cannot verbally express their experiences or symptoms.


  • ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, autism spectrum disorders, and behavioural disorders like conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder are just a few of the many illnesses that can be classified as mental illnesses in children.
  • Symptoms of mental illness in children can manifest as difficulties in academic performance, social interactions, emotional regulation, and behaviour.
  • Diagnosis in children often involves a comprehensive evaluation that considers observations from parents, teachers, and mental health professionals, as well as the child’s self-reporting, if age-appropriate.


  • Adults can suffer from various mental health problems spanning but not restricted to depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance use disorders. Adults with mental illness may experience symptoms such as persistent sadness, mood changes, disrupted sleep or appetite, difficulty concentrating, hallucinations, delusions, and impaired social and occupational functioning.
  • Diagnosis in adults typically involves a comprehensive psychiatric assessment that considers the individual’s symptoms, history, and impact on daily life. Self-reporting and collaboration with mental health professionals are significant in the diagnostic process.

It’s important to note that while mental illness can affect individuals of all ages, the symptoms and diagnostic criteria may be adapted to suit each population’s developmental stage and context. Early identification, intervention, and appropriate treatment approaches are crucial in addressing mental health concerns in infants, children, and adults to promote optimal well-being and functioning.

Mental Health Services In Australia

In Australia, various mental health services are available to support individuals’ mental well-being. These services aim to provide assessment, treatment, and ongoing support to people experiencing mental health challenges. Here’s a brief overview of mental health services in Australia:

  1. General Practitioners (GPs): People with mental health issues usually go to their family doctor first. They can assess and diagnose mental health conditions, provide initial treatment, and refer individuals to specialised services. GPs can also develop mental health care plans to coordinate ongoing care.
  2. Psychologists: Psychologists are trained professionals who provide therapy and counselling to individuals experiencing mental health difficulties. They utilise evidence-based approaches to help clients manage their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours and support their overall mental well-being.
  3. Psychiatrists: Psychiatrists are medical doctors with specialised training in mental health. They can diagnose mental illnesses, prescribe medication, and provide comprehensive treatment plans. Psychiatrists frequently work together with other mental health specialists to provide comprehensive care.
  4. Mental Health Clinics and Community Health Centers: These clinics offer comprehensive mental health care, from diagnostic evaluations to treatment to support groups. They might employ interdisciplinary groups that include psychologists, social workers, nurses, and others.
  5. Mental Health Helplines and Hotlines: Several helplines and hotlines operate 24/7, offering immediate support, crisis intervention, and information about available mental health services. Examples include Lifeline (13 11 14) and Beyond Blue (1300 22 4636).
  6. Online and Digital Mental Health Resources: Australia offers a variety of online platforms and resources, such as e-mental health programs and mobile applications, to provide self-help tools, educational materials, and access to virtual therapy or counselling.
  7. Non-profit Organisations and Support Groups: Various non-profit organisations, such as Headspace and Black Dog Institute, offer specialised mental health services targeted at specific populations, such as youth, veterans, or specific mental health conditions. They provide counselling, support groups, educational programs, and advocacy.
  8. Public Mental Health Services: State and territory governments in Australia operate public mental health services, which offer specialised care for individuals with severe and complex mental health needs. These services provide inpatient treatment, community mental health teams, and crisis support.

It’s important to note that the availability and accessibility of mental health services may vary depending on location and individual circumstances. Those needing mental health services in Australia should talk to a doctor or call a hotline to find out what options are available.

What Does An Infant Mental Health Specialist Do?

What Does An Infant Mental Health Specialist Do? 

An infant mental health expert is a professional specialising in recognising and addressing the unique mental health needs of infants and early children. These specialists typically have advanced training and expertise in early childhood development, psychology, and clinical practice. They work closely with families to assess, diagnose, and treat infant mental health concerns and provide guidance and support to parents and caregivers. Their role is crucial in identifying and addressing any potential challenges that may impact the child’s and their family’s well-being.

Association Of Infant Mental Health 

The Association of Infant Mental Health is a professional organisation that promotes optimal mental health for infants, young children, and their families. This association provides materials, research, and educational opportunities for specialists in infant mental health. In Australia, the Australian Association of Infant Mental Health (AAIMH) is a leading organisation dedicated to advancing the understanding and practice of infant mental health.

Infant Mental Health Awareness Week 2023 Australia

Infant Mental Health Awareness Week aims to increase public understanding of the connection between a healthy mental state in infancy and future success in life. This annual event in Australia provides a platform for education, advocacy, and community engagement. It brings together professionals, parents, and policymakers to promote the well-being of infants and young children.

Infant Mental Health Courses

Infant Mental Health Courses and Training Professionals specialising in infant mental health can pursue various courses and training programs. These programs equip individuals with the knowledge and skills to effectively support infant mental health. By completing these courses, professionals gain a deeper understanding of child development, attachment theory, assessment techniques, and evidence-based interventions.


Are you capable of identifying signs of a mental health disorder in a colleague or friend? If not, it is recommended that you reach out to an accredited training provider to receive education on recognising and addressing symptoms of mental health distress. The training course will cover various topics, including guidance on where to find professional help and gaining an understanding of the treatment options available.

Infant mental health is critical to early childhood development and lays the foundation for lifelong well-being. By supporting and nurturing infant mental health, we contribute to the growth of emotionally resilient and mentally healthy individuals. Through the efforts of infant mental health specialists, associations, and awareness campaigns like Infant Mental Health Awareness Week, we can ensure that infants and their families receive the care and support they need to thrive. Let us prioritise the mental health of our youngest members and invest in their future.

The content on this website offers general insights regarding health conditions and potential treatments. It is not intended as, and should not be construed as, medical advice. If you are facing a medical emergency, dial 000 immediately and follow the guidance provided.

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